Academic Phrasebank 2015 Pdf

Academic Phrasebank

Thus, in academic texts, writers frequently make reference to other studies and to the work of other authors. These factors may explain the relatively good correlation between X and Y. This is normally the case where a specific date or point in time in the past forms a part of the sentence. References will be subject to editor approval before appearing. Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.

The most common elements in these cycles, and some of the language that is typically associated with them, are listed below. Previously published studies on the effect of X are not consistent.

Use this area to link to your response directly. Describing Methods In the Methods section of a dissertation or research article, writers give an account of how they carried out their research.

Another major source of uncertainty is in the method used to calculate X. In text based studies, pdf editor free full version for xp this may comprise quotations from primary sources. The use of X has not been investigated. My main reason for choosing this topic is personal interest.

The vast majority of studies on X have been quantitative. Large randomised controlled trials could provide more definitive evidence. In fact, recent data suggest that the majority of users are native speakers of English. There are a number of important changes which need to be made.

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This theme came up for example in discussions of. In the majority of the examples given here, the Harvard in-text referencing system has been used. The levels observed in this investigation are far below those observed by Smith et al. The examples given below reflect these general patterns, but these are by no means rigid.

Conclusions may be optional in research articles where consolidation of the study and general implications are covered in the Discussion section. At a loss for the right words? Different referencing systems are used in different disciplines. Several methods currently exist for the measurement of X. It is my experience of working with X that has driven this research.

The way a writer refers to other sources varies somewhat across different disciplines. To determine the effects of X, Jones et al.

The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies. As there is usually more than one result, discussion sections are often structured into a series of discussion cycles.

City University of Hong Kong. The issue of X has received considerable critical attention. The yields in this investigation were higher compared to those of other studies. These additional sections should be helpful to you as a writer. Nevertheless, it should be particularly useful for writers who need to report their empirical studies.

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This section of Academic Phrasebank lists some of the phrases that writers may use for this purpose. Fortunately there are useful examples to get your academic phrases right at the University of Manchester Academic Phrasebank. The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers.

However, it is an over-simplification to associate the phrases only with the section in which they have been placed here. There is a large number of published studies e.

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If the debate is to be moved forward, a better understanding of X needs to be developed. Other phrases are listed under the more general communicative functions of academic writing. Note that for many of the functional categories listed later in this section, the verbs are written in the simple past tense and are passive. When referring to the words or ideas of writers, the present tense is often used if the ideas are still relevant, even if the author is no longer alive.

Samples were analysed for X as previously reported by Smith et al. This would be a fruitful area for further work. Future studies on the current topic are therefore recommended. Different authors have measured X in a variety of ways. In most recent studies, X has been measured in four different ways.

The study of the structural behaviour of X was first carried out by Jones et al. Surprisingly, the effects of X have not been closely examined.

Typical stretches of text found in this section of a research article or dissertation along with examples of the kind of language used for these are listed below. Link an External Response Have a response on your own site? However, the findings of the current study do not support the previous research. Most of the phrases in this compendium have been organised according to the main sections of a research report. All studies described as using some sort of X procedure were included in the analysis.

Remember me on this computer. Your reference will not appear until it has been cleared by a website editor.

Graduate Student Showcase. This compound was prepared by adapting the procedure used by Jones et al. Also, the order in which the different categories of phrases are shown reflects a typical order but this is far from fixed or rigid, and not all the elements are present in all introductions.

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