Introduction Of Research Methodology In Pdf
It should contain a clear statement of the objective of the research and an explanation of the methodology adopted in accomplishing the research. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. This method of collecting data is usually carried out in a structured way where output depends upon the ability of the interviewer to a large extent. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.
To do this we select some random starting point and then a systematic pattern is used in proceeding through the table. At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data. There is insufficient interaction between the university research departments on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions on the other side. The hypotheses may be tested through the use of one or more of such tests, depending upon the nature and object of research inquiry. But purposive sampling is considered desirable when the universe happens to be small and a known characteristic of it is to be studied intensively.
With probability samples each element has a known probability of being included in the sample but the non-probability samples do not allow the researcher to determine this probability. Questionnaires are mailed to the respondents with a request to return after completing the same. Then, the feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the problem can be set up. Computers not only save time but also make it possible to study large number of variables affecting a problem simultaneously.
Analysis work after tabulation is generally based on the computation of various percentages, coefficients, etc. After this the researcher rephrases the problem into analytical or operational terms i. Coding operation is usually done at this stage through which the categories of data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. There is paucity of competent researchers.
If the researcher had no hypotheses to start with, generalisations established on the basis of data may be stated as hypotheses to be tested by subsequent researches in times to come. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Much depends upon the capability of enumerators so far as this method is concerned.
Operations research and market research, along with motivational research, are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions. In case of infinite population, the selection of each item in a random sample is controlled by the same probability and that successive selections are independent of one another. Most of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research techniques refer to the behaviour and instruments we use in performing research operations such as making observations, recording data, techniques of processing data and the like. In practice, several of the methods of sampling described above may well be used in the same study in which case it can be called mixed sampling.
Through such research we can analyse the various factors which motivate people to behave in a particular manner or which make people like or dislike a particular thing. Execution of the project is a very important step in the research process. Similarly, in research the scientist has to expose the research decisions to evaluation before they are implemented. Suppose some departmental store wishes to sample its credit card holders. Cook, Research Methods in Social Relations, p.
This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Judgement sampling is used quite frequently in qualitative research where the desire happens to be to develop hypotheses rather than to generalise to larger populations. The systematic approach concerning generalisation and the formulation of a theory is also research. There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher. This permits an observation of the dynamic behaviour of a system or its sub-system under controlled conditions.
Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviour. Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. The unwieldy data should necessarily be condensed into a few manageable groups and tables for further analysis. Once sales forecasting is done, efficient production and investment programmes can be set up around which are grouped the purchasing and financing plans.
It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. The research may be exploratory or it may be formalized. The items so selected constitute what is technically called a sample. The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time. Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the ambiguities, if any, relating to the problem be resolved.
Form the point of view of time, we can think of research either as one-time research or longitudinal research. In most types of research, the development of working hypothesis plays an important role. As such the manner in which research hypotheses are developed is particularly important since they provide the focal point for research.
Research Methodology - Introduction - Notes for Students
After introduction there would appear a statement of findings and recommendations in non-technical language. Towards the end of the main text, researcher should again put down the results of his research clearly and precisely. Historical research is that which utilizes historical sources like documents, remains, critica de la modernidad alain touraine pdf etc. These day nearly all governments maintain large staff of research technicians or experts to carry on this work. Distinguish between Research methods and Research methodology.
Essentially two steps are involved in formulating the research problem, viz. There are two types of research problems, viz.
On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. The consequence is obvious, viz. It is the methods that generate techniques.
The purpose of survey investigations may also be to provide scientifically gathered information to work as a basis for the researchers for their conclusions. Business Research Process. It is the persuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate, and hence, it becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate. Hence, there is need for developing a code of conduct for researchers which, if adhered sincerely, can win over this problem.
PDF) Research Methodology An Introduction
Besides, this type of inquiry involves a great deal of time, money and energy. This is the usual question which should be answered while testing hypotheses. If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable. In fact, it is the final summing up.
Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea s or theory. The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used.
The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. When population elements are selected for inclusion in the sample based on the ease of access, it can be called convenience sampling. This characteristic allows research results to be verified by replicating the study and thereby building a sound basis for decisions. As such this method is not suitable in inquiries where large samples are concerned.
Research can also be classified as conclusion-oriented and decision-oriented. Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount.
They do not necessarily follow each other in any specific order and the researcher has to be constantly anticipating at each step in the research process the requirements of the subsequent steps. The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a field where research is most needed. These enumerators go to respondents with these schedules.
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